Monday, December 29, 2014

Savarkar, Modi’s mentor: The man who thought Gandhi a sissy | The Economist

Savarkar, Modi’s mentor: The man who thought Gandhi a sissy | The Economist: "A fierce nationalist, he adored Guiseppe Mazzini, who fought for the unification of Italy, writing about him in the hope of inspiring resistance to the British in India. Savarkar believed that India is really composed of, and must only be run by, Hindus. In his 1924 book, “Hindutva”, he drew on cultural, philosophical and religious practices of ancient Hinduism, a rich faith that allows immense variety in how it is followed. But he also distinguished the ideology of hindutva—an attempt to unite disparate Hindus in a political project—from the religion. He himself was an atheist, and disapproved of aspects of traditional Hindu belief, dismissing cow worship as superstitious—a stance that would upset many today. He was an early outspoken opponent of caste discrimination. In the 1920s and 1930s others among the emerging Indian political elite opposed “untouchability”, the rejection as sub-human of those considered “below caste”. But Savarkar went further, saying modern India should drop altogether the idea of dividing people by caste."



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Saturday, December 20, 2014

The slips are showing - Sunanda K Datta-Ray

The slips are showing: "An elderly Westernized woman who worked closely with Lady Mountbatten in Delhi told me once how horrified both women were during a boat ride with Jawaharlal Nehru when he leant over the side and, scooping up a handful of water, splashed it on his face and head. They saw it as clear evidence of the creator of modern India subordinating hygiene to primitive faith.

" Was this a sign of primitive faith or Nehru's famous romanticism?



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Tuesday, December 9, 2014

History of Violence : Michael Mandelbaum | Foreign Affairs

 History of Violence -Michael Mandelbaum | Foreign Affairs:



'via Blog this' Violence brought the State and the States indulge in Violence in the form of War.

Monday, December 8, 2014

'The angst of the Tamil Brahmin: Live and let live' - Badri Shshadri

'The angst of the Tamil brahmin: Live and let live' - The Times of India:



'via Blog this'



This is the price Brahmins have to pay for having democracy. Adult suffrage and vote bank politics are the real causes of the travails of the Brahmin, all over the country.

Sunday, November 23, 2014

Divya Upadesh of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Maker and Unifier of Modern Nepal

PRITHWINARA YAN SHAH
IN THE LIGHT OF
DIBY A UPADESH
By
L. F. STILLER, S.].CHAPTER III
DIBYA UPADESH
OF
HIS MAJESTY PRITHWINARA YAN SHAH DEV
(Prithwi's Instruction)
A
FTER His Majesty captured the three cities of Nepal (tin
sahar Nepal) and the Hindupati Raja» he went to Nuwakotfor
the last time." He summoned his priests, teachers,
household,' family, nobles, and his tutor, Surath Singh Rana,
and all the elders and spoke to them thus:
When an old man dies, his words die with him, so they say.
What you who are gathered here will hear from me, pass on to
your children, and they to ours; and this kingdom will endure.
Uprantas
Our mothers were three.' Of three bridal chambers we
brothers came, avatars of the Pandavs. My own marriage took
place in Makwanpur. The bride was not given to me.? I went to
Makwanpur to take the bride and return by way of Nepal (Nepal
pani dekhi bhani au bhani). When I arrived, I said to Dikbhanda
Sen: " If you will give me the one-tusked elephant and the nine-
1. Hindupati Raja: the kings of Makwanpur and Bijayapur had taken
this title. Sharma, p. 205; also Acharya, p. 60.
2. There are three well-known towns named Nuwakot; this one is on
the left bank of the Trisuli River. Narharinath, p. 1. note.
3. Narharinath and Acharya give the date for this as 1774. Narharinath,
p. 1, note 7; Acharya, p. 67.
4. Thar Ghar: one or more members of the families of those men who
had helped Drabya Shah capture Gorkha always sat on the councils of
Gorkha. The six thars in question were those of Ganesh Pande, arayandas
Arjyal, Bhagirath Pantha. Gangaram Rana, Sarbeshwar Khanal, and
Keshav Bohara. They were called colloquially the Thor Ghar. Narharinath,
notes, p. 24.
5. U'pranta: Indicates a new train of thought.
6. This does not seem to agree with the accepted historical tradition
assigning [our wives to Narbhupal Shah. Cf. Regmi, p. 46. However,
it is possible that this means that all the sons of Narbhupal Shah came
from three mothers, in which case it would agree with the tradition, since
the eldest queen was childless.
7. " It is said that the quarrel started over the custom of allowing
the bride to remain at her father' place for some time further, which the
Gorkhalis were intending to break." Regmi, p. 46.
38DIBYA UPADESH
lakh necklace.t I will take the bride. If you refuse, I will take
her and cut my way through with the sword." Threats
were made. .That the king of epal might not recognize me and
seize me, I covered my shoulders with a ghum9 and moved up the
banks of the Rapti. Companions to me were Bhanu ] yotisi,
Kulananda ]yotisi, and others of my family. From Chandragiri's
top I asked, "Which is Nepal ?"lO They showed me, saying,
" That is Bhadgaon, that is Patan, and there lies Kathmandu."
The thought came to my heart that if I might be king of these
three cities, why, let it be so. At this same time these two astrologers
said to me, "0 King, your heart is melting with desire."
I was struck with wonder. How did they know my inmost
thoughts and so speak to me? "At the moment your gaze rested
on Nepal (Nepalma) you stroked your moustache and in your
heart you longed to be king of epal, as it seemed to us." "Will
this come to pass?" I asked. "You, 0 Prince, have held at
all times great respect for cows, Brahmins, guests, holy men, the
gods, and goddesses. Also, in our hands lies the blessing of
Saraswati. You will one day be king of Nepal." And I said: "Beyond
Thankot's great pass, a day and a night beyond Kalleri Ghat,
up Dhading and beyond Champabati River, under the protecting
arms of Ligligkot, I have three men. ]yotisi, send a letter to
call them." "Their names?" he asked. "Ranjit Basnyet,"
I said, "Man Singh Rokaya, Birbhadra Pathak." "Come
straightway, without sleeping, to Maidhi," I wrote. And they
came. I spoke privately to these three. "I have exchanged
threats with Dikbhanda Sen ; I have come to Nepal and have seen
it. And I have decided it must be mine. What say you?"
" Attack, 0 Prince," they said. And they agreed with me. But
I asked them, " If I go to seize another's kingdom, will not another
come to seize my kingdom?" "Yours, 0 Prince, is the
voice to frighten elephants. If those Baisi and Chaubisi princes
come, a river of blood will flow in the Chepa," they answered.
We rose from our secret place and went to Gorkha. My uncle+
had taken the Deoghat road to have darshan of Nilkuntha and
Pasupati. After having darshan of Nilkuntha and Pasupati, he
came to Gorkha to have darshan of Gorkhanath. After his
worship, he met me. And I said: "Uncle, I have gone to
. 8. "The partyofthe bridegroom asked asadowry a valuable necklace (the
bride had it during the ceremony) called Navlakhia and one particular elephant
(Ekdantey) with one tooth, which earlier the owner had refused to present
to the Nawab (Mir Kasim)." Regmi, p ..46, quoting the Gorkha Vamsavali.
9. A kind of rain shelter measuring about two and a half by four feet,
fOlded longitudinally. It is made of thin bamboo lattice-work frames,
between which a layer of plantain leaves is spread.
1.0; One does not see how this should be interpreted, in view of the
trad~hon that as a youth Prithwinarayan Shah had spent some years with
Ranjit Malia of Bhadgaon. Regmi assigns the years 1736-37 to the stay
rn . Bhadgaon, and Prithwinarayan Shah's marriage he places in 1740. If
th~s is so, there is a serious discrepancy, it seems, between this account and
Dlbya U'padesh,
11. Udyat Sen, yuvaraj of Palpa,
39PRITHWI~ARAYAN SHAH
Makwanpur. I reached Nepal and saw that kingdom. I have
decided I must attack that kingdom. What must I do to succeed?
Instruct me, if you will." And he answered: "At the time
ofPancharatri I hada dream. There wasa great war in which there
were five men, avatars of the Pandavs, as it were. Without war
Nepal will not be conquered. Lamjung is called a Garud.
Gorkha is called a snake. Nepal, a frog. The snake must deceive
the eyes of the Garud, and then it can eat the frog." "I have,"
r said, "four clans of warriors. Which of these must go, if the
work is to be finished quickly?" "Which are the clans?" he
asked. "Brahmin, Khas, Magar, Thakuri,' I said. "Which
of these should go to finish the task quickly?" "The Brahmin
goes as a bullock," he said; " if he goes, it will be sin everywhere.
The Thakuri goes as a lion; afterwards comes his craft. The
Magar goes as a mountain pony. He will be slow. The Khas goes
as a swift Arabian steed. If the Khas goes, it will be quickly
done, or so it seems to me." And with this he gave me much
other advice. I took his advice, and then I went to meet the
king of Lamjung, Ripumardan Shah. We met at Chepe Ghat.
We spoke of a treaty and of home affairs. The matter for which
we would agree to conclude a treaty was as a knot in my heart.
This thing Kalu Pande did. And the treaty was strong and lasting.
And I was in wonder. But I was also pleased. He, with
whom the people are pleased, he it is who is made kazi, so the
shastras say. I consulted the wishes of the people and found that
the people also wanted him. If Kalu Pande is made kazi, all
the people will be pleased, I was advised. Then I looked to the
Baisi and the Chaubisi princes. And they told me that if Kalu
Pande were made kazi, the home and foreign policy would be
strong. It was in my mind to make Biraj Bakheti kazi. But
Kalu Pande was thought to be wiser, and Kalu Pande was made
kazi. Now I made a marriage bond between the Pandes and the
Basnyets. "Give your daughter to the son of Shivaram Basnyet,
Kehe Singh Basnyet,' I said. And I married them and made
the bond between the Pan des and the Basnyets. I made a Pande
the shield (foreign policy) and a Basnyet the sword (war minister)
and prepared to ascend t,o Nepal.
I stationed Ranjit Basnyet, Man Singh Rokaya, and
Birbhadra Pathak at Ligligkot for the protection of Gotan Birai
and went to have darshan of the devi at Sallyan Kot. They say
she gives inspiration. I went to learn the auspicious time. To
Sallyan I went, and I camped there. And I asked the headmen
of the fort if one might have darshan of the devi. "To go into
the temple for darshan is for the priests only," they said. "So
be it," I answered. " But might one have darshan at the gate ?"
"This is permitted," they answered. So morning and evening
I sat at the gate, reading, worshipping, and praying. One night
I had a dream. A seven or eight-year-old maiden came to me,
bearing a sword in either hand. She covered her head with a
pale rose-coloured cloth and came close to me. I asked her whoDIBYA UPADESH 41
her father was. She answered that she was the daughter of the
Rana (Magar) priest of the temple. Saying this, she placed the
swords in my hands. Then she took from her bosom a small object
shaped like the arasi and placed it on my lips, saying: "This
also you must swallow. Then, whatever you wish for, you will
receive. I also have a request," she added. "Receive this and
go." And so saying, she took steps and vanished. At this, I
awoke. I called for Bhanu Jyotisi and Kulananda Jyotisi as
well as the Rana priest, and I asked them to explain this to me.
The astrologers and the priest said that this was the devi and that
I had received darshan. At this moment I presented incense,
lights, flags, and a feast. For the permanent worship I added
seven buffaloes and seven goats and the income from Borlang
Ghat and the ridge near the Ghat. This same hour I took my
leave, travelling without pause until I camped at Simalchaur
Chautara. My intention was to take Nuwakot, but to outward
appearances I· went to Kinchyat-" for farming and digging irrigation
channels. I used to go by boat regularly to the Temple
of Indrayani at Betravati Beni, where I worshipped. I had darshan
of the devi of Sallyan Kot and of the bairabi of Indrayani.
At Mahamandal the Savata of Nuwakot was being held.P In
Mahamandal there was a Gyami Rana. "Be one of us. Leave
Mahamandal. Come with me." Thus the message I sent to
him. And he answered that it was true, that he did belong to
me.
14 "But," said he, "I have eaten the salt of Jaya Prakash
Malla, and I will be true to this until death." One day I sat in
council. I sat there dreaming. Ana in my daydream I was
sitting at the temple of Indrayani. "One week from today there
will be a very auspicious time. That day's omen will be the
cure of Nuwakot," I heard. I asked the astrologer to look into
his book and see. "That day, a week hence," he said, "early
Saturday morning is an auspicious time. On this same auspicious
day let us climb Mahamandal." And we fought ... 15 My
12. Kinchyat lay on the eastern border of the kingdom of Gorkha. One
of the two rivers in question is the Trisuli. Maps of the area indicate the
other as probably being Phalangu Khola, The confluence is certainly at
Betravati, and perhaps Phalangu Khola also goes by the name of Betravati.
The Gorkhali tactics of having the soldiers cover their operations by posing
as farmers and preparing the land gives an interesting sidelight on the
methods used by the hill troops.
13. Savata: Variant explanations are given by pundits for this word. It
could be Sauteni or co-wife. in which case Mahamandal would be taken as
a rival of Nuwakot. I have taken it to be the seven days of religious readings
from the shastras with the accompanying lectures. I confess rierther
interpretation satisfies me completely, and J suspect that only a very thorough
knowledge of the geography of the area will make it possible to accept or
reject the Sauteni interpretation mentioned in this note.
14. Jayant Rana, who had led Nurbhupal's attack on Nuwakot and
then later. when suspicion of collusion with the enemy fell on him, had
gone over to Jaya Prakash Malla. Jaya Prakash Malia had placed him
in charge of the troops at Nuwakot. Cf. Gyawali, pp. 196 and 198. .
15. There follows here a short passa~e whose meaning is obscure owmg
to a lack of historical reference. according to Baburam Acharya. (Hamra
nun ka lesli le jlmkai dine pan/halo42 PRITHWINARAYAN SHAH
twelve-year-old brother, Dalmardan Shah, struck the Rana on
the head with his sword and ended the battle. We crossed beyond
uwakot, setting up posts at Kakani and heopuri
and digging entrenchments. Parsuram Thapa-" gave his hand
to me, aying," Come, attack Nepal." And he sent his brother
to make offers to the Chaubisi princes and to stir them up to attack
us from the rear. I learned of this, and I asked where he had
gone. "To Hatiya Pass near Pokhara. There he stayed."
" Who can go and put an end to him ?" I asked in council. They
could think of no one. I said I thought Jhagal Gurung could
do it, and so I sent for him and gave him the command
to go. Before he left, I gave him my khukari. Jhagal Gurung
put on a minstrel's clothing, carried a fish pole in one hand and
his sarangi in the other, with a few dharnies of fish over his shoulder.
When Parsuram's brother's soldiers were eating, he saw his
chance, put an end to him, and came back. Later, after I had
strengthened the rear, I opened epal, joined the east and west,
and took Nepal.
Upranta
This country is like a gourd between two rocks. Maintain
a treaty of friendship with the emperor of China. Keep also a
treaty of friendship with the emperor of the southern sea (the
Company). He has taken the plains. He will realize that if
Hindustan unites, it will be difficult, and so he will come seeking
places for forts.t? Prepare forts, without burdening the people.
Set traps in the trail. One day that force will come. Do not
go down to the plains to fight. Withdraw to the hills to fight.
Chure Pass will be much used. Store arms and ammunition there
for five to seven generations. The Ganga is also a line of defence.
If this does not suffice in war, regardless of trickery or schemes,
the strength of Nepal lies in her forts. If he takes these, the four
emperors will come.IS God has given us the places for these
forts. There is no need to ask where. 1. Shivapuri, 2. Phulchowki,
3. Chandragiri, 4. Mahadevpokhari, S. Palung, 6. Dapcha,
7. Kahule, At these places permanent forts should be built.
Behind the forts, on a higher place, cannon should be placed. In
. 16. The brother of the slain Kasiram Thapa. He was sent by the conspirators
against Jaya Prakash Malia to summon Prithwinarayan Shah to
Kathmandu. Gyawali, p. 200. The sense of the passage here seems to indicate
that he went over to the Chaubisi Rajas after making these overtures to
Prithwinarayan Shah.
17. There is some difference of opinion on the interpretation of this
pas5ag~. pro Malhotra (Historical Glimpses oj Modern Nepal, Prof. G. C.
Shastn, Kathmandu, 2024, p. 8) translates it: "When they shall become
masters of the whole of India, they would create trouble for us." I see no
justification for ;,histranslation either in the Nepali or in the context. The
passage IS thl~: Hindusthann. dabai rashe chha. sarajim» ma pari rahe chha.
Hindusthana Jamyo bhanya, kalhin """Zf! ... ," p. 12.
18. arhannath (I· 26, not!') suggests \thcse four emperors as India,
China, Ru SJa, and Rome. One \\ criders why he speaks of Russia and Rome.DlBYA UPADESH 43
the gaps in the mountains an iron door should be built.P Behind
each door, on a higher place, cannon should be set up and a band
of five soldiers stationed at each place. If this is done there will
be no opportunity for ambush, spying, routing, destroying, sneaking,
trouble-making, murder, or anything like these. Even if
the four emperors come, they will avail nothing.
Upranta
I observed the arrangements of King Ram Shah. I saw the
arrangements of Jayasthiti Malla, also. I saw, too, the arrangements
of Mahindra Malla. If it is God's will, I would like
to make this sort of arrangement for the 12,000.
20 Roads to the
east and to the west being closed, I would open the roads
of Nepal.P I would arrange that each class (jat) do its own
special work. This three-citied Nepal is a cold stone. It
is great only in intrigue. With one who drinks water from
cisterns, there is no wisdom; nor is there courage. There is only
intrigue." My wish is to build my capital at Dahachowk. And
I would build around me houses for the leaders and priests of my
people, my family, my court, the leaders and chiefs of the hill
states. My capital would be set apart. In these cities, apart
from my capital, let there remain empty pomp and pleasure.
Upranta
Do not let the merchants of India come up from the border.
If the merchants of India come to our country, thev will leave
the people poor. We have won for homespun the -three cities
of Nepal, the nine lakhs of Kiratis, and the Hindupati Raja. Forbid
the use of cloth made in India. Show samples to those who
know how to make our cloth. Teach them and begin to make
clothing. If this is done, our money will not go abroad. Send
our herbs to India and bring back money. When you acquire
money, keep it. If the citizens are wealthy, the country
is strong. The king's storehouse is his people. In our country
19. Narharinath quotes in his notes an old poem (p. 27, note) that speaks
of such an iron door as being found at Sindhuli and Chisapani up to the
time of Rajendra Bikram.
20. The reference is to the Corkhalis. Originally there were 12,000
households in Gorkha, according to Narharinath, Later, even when the
population numbered far in excess of three lakbs, the reference was still
made to the Gorkhalis as the 12.000. Narharinath, p. 27, note.
21. The sense of this passage seems to be that the roads to the east and
west of the Valley would be closed to traders from the plains who attempted
to gain an illicit share in the trade with Tibet by by-passing the Valley or
to trade with Nepal. The roads would be closed to such travellers, but the
roads throughout Nepal would be open to Nepalis,
22. It is interesting to compare this statement with that of Desiderius,
who passed through Nepal at the close of 1721. He says, "These Neuars
are active. intelligent, and very industrious, clever at engraving and melting
metal, but unstable, turbulent and traitorous," Desiderius, An Account
of Tibet, ed. Filippo De Filippi, London, 1937.PRITHWINARAYA SHAH
there should be no tax farming. Let the government set the
rates and collect the taxes and have an annual audit taken.
Whether a man be selected as a soldier or as a courtier, let him
not acquire wealth. Give a man only honour, and that according
to his worth. Why? I will tell you. If a rich man enters
into battle, he cannot die well; nor can he kill. In a poor man
there is spark. If my brother soldiers and the courtiers are not
given to pleasure, my sword can strike in all directions. But if
they are pleasure-seekers, this will not be my little painfully acquired
kingdom but a garden of every sort of people. But
if everyone is alert, this will be a true Hindustan of the four
jats, greater and lesser, with the thirty-six classes. Do not
leave your ancient religion. Don't forsake the salt of the king.
Do not take the chamberlain's post from Kalu's family. Do not
take the care of the foreign policy for Tibet from the hands of
Kalu Pande's family. In giving the kazi's post to the Pandes
Basnyets, Panthas, and Magars, give it to them each
in turn. They are the true servants of my salt. Even if they
should commit some crime deserving of death, do not kill them
yourselves. Instead, give them the kaziship or command and
send them into battle. If they come back alive, it is well. If
they are killed, it is well that they be killed by another in place
of you. Let the king not kill a servant in his house. Let the
king see that great justice is done. Let there be no injustice in
our country. Justice is crippled when bribes are given and when
bribes are taken. If either of these is done, it should not be
considered sinful to confiscate all their property. These are
the zreat commands of the king.
Upranta
An important point is that the soldiers required for the king
should be given their house and land and that they farm it, so
that they can support themselves by both means. Then, without
concern for their family's welfare, whether they are in the
capital or in the field, they will be stout-hearted. And in
the annual pajani23 make. up companies of one hundred rifles.
Appoint as commander of them one who has tested himself in
four or five battles. In choosing a sat pagari commander, choose
one who has been successful in several battles. In placing his
sohra haoildar, let him appoint a man he has tested as a man of
courage. The sohra havildar should choose soldiers whom he
knows from experience to be courageous. In their own companies
enlist Khas, Magars, Gurungs, and Thakuris, and only these
four jats.24 In time of war such an army will be strong. Let
23. Pajani: annual reappointment of soldiers and officers.
24. This was more or less the practice of the hill kingdoms. Though
Sanwal (p. 44) seems to indicate that the secret of Prithwinarayan Shah's
success lay in the fact tha t he chose from these four classes, while others
chose only the Thakuris, the Magars formed an important part of the army
in the Valley as well. Cf. GyawaJi, p. 196.DIBYA UPADESH
these four jats only serve in the military, and in time of war all
will be strong; and the enemy and heaven itself will tremble. If
the enemy had thousands of bows and thousands of flintlocks,
thousands of swords and thousands of cannon, heaven would
tremble. In battle, both those who press the attack and those
who act in support are equally important. In giving jagirs and
birta lands, these should be equally rewarded. If a soldier
is killed, give his land to his son until the boy is ready for military
service; then raise him to a jagir. If the king is discerning, the
soldiers will also be confident. If these instructions are carried
out, the nation will have experienced soldiers. Soldiers are the very
marrow of the king. If the soldiers and the peasants are with
the king, he is wise. Join the soldiers and the peasants and there
will be no insurrection. Keep the soldiers prepared. A soldier
who is alert and prepared does not play favourites, and his work
is straight. Gurungs, Magars, and Khans are very loyal. Their
nobles, chieftains, and headmen, and the very old families should
be tested and placed close to the king. The Chettris and Brahmins
of the east and west should not be permitted to enter the
court. "Why?" I will tell you. Outsiders do not obey the court
traditions. Keep the command of the king firmly.
I made three peaks very strong. To their headmen I gave
signal flags and drums. I gave them also sufficient money."
Whatever Sallyan, Liglig, and Dhading set their face to do was
done successfully. This is God's work. Always arrange to keep
your old, tested servants near you; and your nation will be strong.
If the king is wise, he will keep the soldiers and the peasants on
his side. Don't allow them to play favourites and seek bribes,
but let them be loyal.
Upranta
Keep the mint pure. In the courts put tested Thakuris as
judges and tested Magars as clerks. In each court put a man
skilled in the law. Conduct the courts according to law. Money
collected .in the courts must never be used for the palace. Use
it to feed holy men, guests, yogis and sanyasis. If any money
is left over, let the money be used to buy offerings of dhotis and
cloth for these holy men. If this is done, there will be no false
accusation. In a place where there are minerals, even though
a village be situated there, the village must be moved and the
mine worked. In places suitable for paddy, canals should be
dug, fields cultivated, even if it means moving a house.
Upranta
At one time I came to help, and they had called me. But
later they betrayed me and caused me great sorrow by trying to
stir up the Chaubisi and Baisi princes against me. But I secured
the rear and took Nepal. They brought Nagas from the south
25. Literally, a bundle of Rs. 240/-.
4S46 PRITHWINARAYAN SHAH
at Jaya Prakash's behe t, but I conquered them in seven villages.
Kasim Khan attacked Makwanpur, but I defeated him with 120
men with khukaris, and took the equipment of his men. Hardy
Sahib came to attack Sindhuli Gadhi with three or four companies.w
I defeated him also and took his flintlocks. Three
mussulmen came from Lucknow seeking to enter my service.
They came to uwakot. They repaired rifles. The e three
mussulmen were artisans. I made them adjutants: Sekhjar, Bar
Mama, Bherekasim; and they gave my men training. In the
history of Nepal I saw that the Turks, the Magars, and the
Iughals might attack epal. The Turkish attack had come.P?
But I am a Magar king.28 To meet the Mughal threat, I established
forts, and I gathered companies. I made the companie mixed,
half with khukaris and half with rifles. With a company of 100
rifles, the work will be ea y. With such a company of 100 rifles,
I can resist 1,000 men. Placing one company at each fort, divide
the ridge , maintain reserves.
Upranta
I am in doubt about one thing. Which thing? Muglan
(India) is near. In that place there are singers and dancers. In
rooms lined with painting, they forget themselves in melodies
woven on the drum and sitar. There is great pleasure in these
melodies. But it drains your wealth. They also take away the
secrets of your country and deceive the poor. Let no one even
practice the ragas. Let no one open the mountain trails for these
clas es of people. If they are needed for H oli, bring a few;
but send them away quickly, and they will not discover your
country's secrets. For your own enjoyment, according to the
shasiras, bring some of the Newar dancers of the three cities of
epal. This is quite all right. If anything is given to these, it
remains inside your own country: If this is done, your country
will be well protected.
26. It is interesting to note that no mention is made here of any Capuchin
connection with the Kinloch mission, called here the Hardy mission. In
fact, the omission of any mention, of the Capuchins in this document, despite
the rather detailed account of traders, singers, and military dangers eems
significant. Gyawali, Sharma, Regmi, Sanwal, Chaudhuri, Malhotra,
Bhandari, Aryal, and the English historians always seem to link the
Capuchins with this mission of Kinloch. Yet no mention is made here of
the Capuchins, nor do the historians in question offer any reference as
support of their statements. The fact that the authors mentioned differ
as to significant details, combined with this lack of supporting references,
raises the interesting question of their accuracy in this regard.
27. Shams ud-din I1yas. Cf. Petech, Mediaeval History of Nepal, Rome,
1958, pp. 118-20, for the best documented account of this raid.
28. This pas age is indeed confusing. The sense of it seems to be something
like this: There were to be three invasions of Nepal, one by the Turks,
one by the Magars, and one by the Mughuls. The Turkish invasion had
come and gone. The Magar invasion is that carried out by Prithwinarayan
Shah himself. The Mughul invasion was that of Mir Kasim , Prithwinarayan
Shah seems to be trying to show that the predictions of the Chronicle are
fulfilled with these three invasions mentioned.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Rise of Muslim parties: How will it change Indian politics?

Rise of Muslim parties: How will it change Indian politics? - Moneycontrol.com:



Rise of Muslim population and Parties in India and their impact on Indian politics.

The brutal Draconian laws of ancient Greece | Ancient Origins

The brutal Draconian laws of ancient Greece | Ancient Origins:



Chanakya said that excess of anything is bad, Ati Sarvatra Barjayet. Too much popularity killed Draco, with whom began the practice of written laws in Greece,and after whom draconian law is named.

Monday, October 27, 2014

Laws of Power

Power is to Politics what resource is to Economics. The French synonym of power is 'Pouvoir' and the Latin synonym is ' Potestas', which have been derived from the verbs 'Pouvoir' and ' Posse', meaning 'to be able'. It is owing to this meaning of power that we put dynamo power, will power and political power under the same rubric. Bertrand Russell says power is the production of intended effects. Hobbes clarified that power doesn't mean only domination but, more broadly, the ability to secure a good. Wealth is power, friends are power, good luck is power. ( WT Bluhm).

Robert Greene has come out with 48 Laws of Power.
*1) Never Outshine the Master. Always make those above you feel comfortably superior. In your desire to to please or impress them, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite - inspire fear and insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.
( And as I didn't know and follow this law, I never endeared myself to my bosses.)

*2) Never Put Too Much Trust In Friends, Learn How To Use Enemies
Be wary of friends -- they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They also become spoiled and tyrannical. But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.
Whose influence do you find here, Kautilya's or Machiavelli's?

3) Conceal Your Intentions
Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defence. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelop them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.
#Conceit

*4) Always Say Less Than Necessary
When you are trying to impress people with words, the more you say, the more common you appear, and the less in control. Even if you are saying something banal, it will seem original if you are vague, open-ended, and sphinxlike. Powerful people impress and intimidate by saying less. The more you say, the more likely you are to say something foolish.

*5) So Much Depends On Reputation - Guard It With Your Life
Reputation is the cornerstone of power. Through reputation alone yoy can intimidate and win; once it slips, however, you are vulnerable, and will be attacked on all sides. Make your reputation unassailable. Always be alert to potential attacks and thwart them before they happen. Meanwhile, learn to destroy your enemies by opening holes in their reputations. Then stand aside and let public opinion hang them.
Deja vu !

6) Court Attention At All Cost
Everything is judged by its appearance, what is unseen counts for nothing. Never let yourself get lost in the crowd, then, or buried in oblivion. Stand out. Be conspicuous, at all cost. Make yourself a magnet of attention by appearing larger, more colourful, more mysterious than the bland and timid masses.

7) Get Others To Do The Work For You, But Always Take The Credit
Use the wisdom, knowledge, and legwork of other people to further your own cause. Not only will such assistance save you valuable time and energy, it will give you a godlike aura of efficiency and speed. In the end your helpers will be forgotten and you will be remembered. Never do yourself what others can do for you.
Teaching opposite of what we know good behaviour.

8) Make Other People Come To You - Use Bait If Necessary
When you force the other person to act, you are in control. It is always better to make your opponent come to you, abandoning his own plans in the process. Lure him with fabulous gains - then attack. You hold the cards.

9) Win Through Your Actions, Never Through Argument
Any momentary triumph you think you have gained through argument is really a Pyrrhic victory: The resentment and ill will you stir up is stronger and lasts longer than any momentary change of opinion. It is much more powerful to get others to agree with you through your actions, without saying a word. Demonstrate, do not explicate.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi wins through actions.

10) Infection: Avoid The Unhappy And Unlucky
You can die for someone else's misery - emotional state are as infectious as diseases. You may feel you are helping the drowning man but you are only precipitating your own disaster. The unfortunate sometimes draw misfortune on themselves; they will also draw it on you. Associate with the happy and fortunate instead.
Had not Machiavelli advised his Prince how not to be good!

11) Learn To Keep People Dependent On You
To maintain your independence you must always be needed and wanted. The more you are relied on, the more freedom you have.Make people depend on you for their happiness and prosperity and you have nothing to fear. Never teach them enough so that they can do without you.
Even our pundits used to say this. :-)

12) Use Selective Honesty and Generosity To Disarm Your Victim
One sincere and honest move will cover over dozens of dishonest one. Open-hearted gestures of honesty and generosity bring down the guard of even the most suspicious people. Once your selective honesty opens a hole in their armour, you can deceive and manipulate them at will. A timely gift - a Trojan horse - will serve the same purpose.
A contemporary leader practices this art in a masterly way.

*13) When Asking For Help, Appeal To People's Self-Interest, Never To Their Mercy Or Gratitude 

If you need to turn to an ally for help, do not bother to remind him of your past assistance and good deeds. He will find a way to ignore you. Instead, uncover something in your request, or in your alliance with him, that will benefit him, and emphasize it out of all proportion. He will respond enthusiastically when he sees something to be gained for himself.
Jawaharlal Nehru, while asking for assistance, always tried to show that the assistance was in the interest of the giver.

14) Pose As A Friend, Work As A Spy
Knowing about your rival is critical. Use spies to gather valuable information that will keep you a step ahead. Better still: Play the spy yourself. In polite social encounters, learn to probe. Ask indirect questions to get people to reveal their weaknesses and intentions. There is no occasion that is not an opportunity for artful spying.

*15) Crush Your Enemy Totally
All great leaders since Moses have known that a feared enemy must be crushed completely. ( Sometimes they have learned this the hard way.) If one ember is left alight, no matter how dimly it smoulders, a fire will eventually break out. More is lost through stopping halfway than through total annihilation: The enemy will recover, and will seek revenge. Crush him not only in body but in spirit.
 A hurt snake is more dangerous. Kill it.

16) Use Absence To Increase Respect And Honour
Too much circulation makes the price go down: The more you are seen and heard from, the more common you appear. If you are already established in a group, temporary withdrawal from it will make you more talked about, even more admired. You must learn when to leave. Create value through scarcity.

17) Keep Others In Suspended Terror: Cultivate An Air Of Unpredictability
Humans are creatures of habit with an insatiable need to see familiarity in other people's actions. Your predictability gives them a sense of control. Turn the tables: Be deliberately unpredictable. Behaviour that seems to have no consistency or purpose will keep then off-balance, and they will wear themselves out trying to explain your moves. Taken to an extreme, this strategy can intimidate and terrorize.

18) Do Not Build Fortresses To Protect Yourself - Isolation Is Dangerous
The world is dangerous and enemies are everywhere - everyone has to protect themselves. A fortress seems the safest. But isolation exposes you to more dangers than it protects you from - it cuts you off from valuable information, it makes you conspicuous and an easy target. Better to circulate among people, find allies, mingle. You are shielded from your enemies by the crowd.

19) Know Who You're Dealing With - Do Not Offend The Wrong Person
There are many different kinds of people in the world, and you can never assume that everyone will react to your strategies in the same way. Deceive or outmaneouvre some people and they will spend the rest of their lives seeking revenge. They are wolves in lambs' clothing. Choose your victims and opponents carefully, then - never offend or deceive the wrong person.

20) Do Not Commit To Anyone
It is the fool who always rushes to take sides. Do not commit to any side or cause but yourself. By maintaining your independence, you become the master of others - playing people against one another, making them pursue you.

21) Play A Sucker To Catch A Sucker - Seem Dumber Than Your Mark
No one likes feeling stupider than the next person. The trick, then, is to make your victims feel smart - and not just smart, but smarter than you are. Once convinced of this, they will never suspect that you may have ulterior motives.

22) Use The Surrender Tactic: Transform Weakness Into Power
When you are weaker, never fight for honour's sake; choose surrender instead. Surrender gives you time to recover, time to torment and irritate your conqueror, time to wait for his power to wane. Do not give him the satisfaction of fighting and defeating you - surrender first. By turning the other cheek you infuriate and unsettle him. Make surrender a tool for power.

23) Concentrate Your Forces 
Conserve your forces and energies by keeping them concentrated at their strongest point. You gain more by finding a rich mine and mining it deeper, than by flitting from one shallow mine to another - intensity defeats extensivity every time. When looking for sources of power to elevate you, find the one key patron, the fat cow who will give you milk for a long time to come.

24) Play The Perfect Courtier
The perfect courtier thrives in a world where everything revolves around power and political dexterity. He has mastered the art of indirection; he flatters, yields to superiors, and asserts power over others in the most oblique and graceful manner. Learn and apply the laws of courtiership and there will be no limit to how far you can rise in the court.

25) Re-create Yourself
Do not accept the roles that society foists on you. Re-create yourself by forging a new identity, one that commands attention and never bores the audience. Be the master of your own image rather than letting others define it for you. Incorporate dramatic devices into your public gestures and actions - your power will be enhanced and your character will seem larger than life.

*26) Keep Your Hands Clean 
You must seem a paragon of civility and efficiency: Your hands are never soiled by mistakes and nasty deeds. Maintain such a spotless appearance by using others as scapegoats and cat's-paws to disguise your involvement.

*27) Play On People's Need To Believe To Create A Cultlike Following
People have an overwhelming desire to believe in something. Become the focal point of such desire by offering them a cause, a new faith to follow. Keep your words vague but full of promise; emphasize enthusiasm over rationality and clear thinking. Give your new disciples rituals to perform, ask them to make sacrifices on your behalf. In the absence of organized religion and grand causes, your new belief system will bring you untold power.
Seems familiar ?

28) Enter Action With Boldness
If you are unsure of a course of action, do not attempt it. Your doubts and hesitations will infect your execution. Timidity is dangerous: Better to enter with boldness. Any mistakes you commit through audacity are easily corrected with more audacity. Everyone admires the bold; no one honours the timid.

29) Plan All The Way To The End
The ending is everything. Plan all the way to it, taking into account all the possible consequences, obstacles, and twists of fortune that might reverse your hard work and give the glory to others. By planning to the end you will not be overwhelmed by circumstances and you will know when to stop. Gently guide fortune and help determine the future by thinking far ahead.

*30) Make Your Accomplishments Seem Effortless
Your actions must seem natural and executed with ease. All the toil and practice that go into them, and also all the clever tricks, must be concealed. When you act, act effortlessly, as if you could do much more. Avoid the temptation of revealing how hard you work - it only raises questions. Teach no one your tricks or they will be used against you.
In the Indian context Nehru, Indira, Modi worked so hard but never boasted about it.

31) Control The Options: Get Others To Play With The Cards You Deal
The best deceptions are the ones that seem to give the other person a choice: You victims feel they are in control, but are actually your puppets. Give people options that come out in your favour whichever one they choose. Force them to make choices between the lesser of two evils, both of which serve your purpose. Put them on the horns of a dilemma: They are gored wherever they turn.

32) Play To People's Fantasies
The truth is often avoided because it is ugly and pleasant. Never appeal to truth and reality unless you are prepared for the anger that comes from disenchantment. Life is so harsh and distressing that people who can manufacture romance or conjure up fantasy are like oases in the desert: Everyone flocks to them. There is great power in tapping into the fantasies of the masses.

33) Discover Each Man's Thumbscrew 
Everyone has a weakness, a gap in the castle wall. That weakness is usually an insecurity, an uncontrollable emotion or need; it can also be a small secret pleasure. Either way, once found, it is a thumbscrew you can turn to your advantage.

34) Be Royal In Your Own Fashion: Act Like A King To Be Treated Like One
The way carry yourself will often determine how you are treated: In the long run, appearing vulgar or common will make people disrespect you. For a king respects himself and inspires the same sentiment in others. By acting regally and confident of your powers, you make yourself seem destined to wear a crown.

35) Master The Art Of Timing
Never seem to be in a hurry - hurrying betrays a lack of control over yourself, and over time. Always seem patient, as if you know that everything will come to you eventually. Become a detective of the right moment; sniff out the spirit of the times, the trends that will carry you to power. Learn to step back when the time is not yet ripe, and to strike fiercely when it has reached fruition.

36) Disdain Things You Cannot Have: Ignoring Them Is The Best Revenge
By acknowledging a petty problem you give it existence and credibility. The more attention you pay an enemy, the stronger you make him; and a small mistake is often made worse and more visible when you try to fix it. It is sometimes best to leave things alone. If there is something you want but cannot have, show contempt for it. The less interest you reveal, the more superior you seem.
A practical advice for all, not only for power seekers/holders.

37) Create Compelling Spectacles
Striking imagery and grand symbolic gestures create the aura of power - everyone responds to them. Stage spectacles for those around you, then, full of arresting visuals and radiant symbols that that heighten your presence. Dazzled by appearance, no one will notice what you are really doing.

38) Think As You Like But Behave Like Others
If you make a show of going against the times, flaunting your unconventional ideas and unorthodox ways, people will think that you only want attention and that you look down upon them. They will find a way to punish you for making them feel inferior. It is far safer to blend in and nurture the common touch. Share your originality only with tolerant friends and those who are sure to appreciate your uniqueness.

39) Stir Up Waters To Catch Fish 
Anger and emotion are strategically counterproductive. You must always stay calm and objective. But if you can make your enemies angry while staying calm yourself, you gain a decided advantage. Put your enemies off-balance. Find the chink in their vanity through which you can rattle them and you hold the strings.
This rule doesn't apply to Ajatshatrus. :-)

40) Despise The Free Lunch
What is offered for free is dangerous - it usually involves either a trick or a hidden obligation.What has worth is worth paying for. By paying your own way you stay clear of gratitude, guilt, and deceit. It is also often wise to pay full price - there is no cutting corners with excellence. Be lavish with your money and keep it circulating, for generosity is a sign and a magnet for power.
This rule is opposite of our socialisation.

41) Avoid Stepping Into A Great Man's Shoes
What happens first always appears better and more original than what comes after. If you succeed a great man or have famous parent, you will have to accomplish double their achievements to outshine them. Do not get lost in their shadow, or stuck in a past not of your making: Establish your own name and identity by changing course. Slay the overbearing father, disparage his legacy, and gain power by shining in your own way.
Contrary to our own preferred practice.

42) Strike The Shepherd And The Sheep Will Scatter
Trouble can often be traced to a single strong individual - the stirrer, the arrogant underling, the poisoner of goodwill. If you allow such people room to operate, others will succumb to their influence. Do not wait for the troubles they cause to multiply, do not try to negotiate with them - they are irredeemable. Neutralize their influence by isolating or banishing them. Strike at the source of the trouble and the sheep will scatter.

43) Work On The Hearts And Minds Of Others
Coercion creates a reaction that will eventually work against you. You must seduce others into wanting to move in your direction. A person you have seduced becomes your loyal pawn. And the way to seduce others is to operate on their individual psychologies and weaknesses. Soften up the resistant by working on their emotions, playing on what they hold dear and what they fear. Ignore the hearts and minds of others and they will grow to hate you.
Use of psychology to make people follow you and your way.

44) Disarm And Infuriate With The Mirror Effect
The mirror reflects reality, but it is also the perfect tool for deception: When you mirror your enemies, doing exactly as they do, they cannot figure out your strategy. The Mirror Effect mocks and humiliates them, making them overreact. By holding up a mirror to their psyches, you seduce them with the illusion that you share their values; by holding up a mirror to their actions, you teach them a lesson. Few can resist the power of the Mirror Effect.

45) Preach The Need For Change, But Never Reform Too Much At Once
Everyone understands the need for change in the abstract, but on the day-to-day level people are creatures of habits. Too much innovation is traumatic, and will lead to revolt. If you are new to a position of power, or an outsider trying to build a power base, make a show of respecting the old way of doing things. If change is necessary, make it feel like a gentle improvement on the past.
Here Greene is not entirely right. When people are fed up with a non-performing system and corrupt leadership, total break with the past practices may be welcomed by the people.

46) Never Appear Too Perfect
Appearing better than others is always dangerous, but most dangerous of all is to have no faults or weaknesses. Envy creates silent enemies. It is smart to occasionally display defects, and admit to harmless vices, in order to deflect envy and appear more human and approachable. Only gods and the dead can seem perfect with impunity.

47) Do Not Go Past The Mark You Aimed For; In Victory, Learn When To Stop
The moment of victory is often the moment of most peril. In the heat of victory, arrogance and overconfidence can push you past the goal you had aimed for, and by going too far, you make more enemies than you defeat. Do not allow success go to your head. There is no substitute for strategy and careful planning. Set a goal, and when you reach it, stop.
Narendra Modi, the Indian Prime Minister, has defied this rule. Mr Greene would be better advised to modify (Modify:-) ) this rule.

48) Assume Formlessness
By taking a shape, by having a visible plan, you open yourself to attack. Instead of taking a form for your enemy to grasp, keep yourself adaptable and on the move. Accept the fact that nothing is certain and no law is fixed. The best way to protect yourself is to be as fluid and formless as water; never bet on stability or lasting order. Everything changes.


   R K Jha, November8, 2014.

Saturday, October 18, 2014

How we change in company !

Show me a man or a woman alone and I'll show you a saint. Give me two and they'll fall in love. Give me three and they'll invent the charming thing we call 'society'. Give me four and they'll build a pyramid. Give me five and they'll make one an outcast. Give me six and they'll reinvent prejudice. Give me seven and in seven years they'll reinvent warfare. - Stephen King.

मुझे एक अकेला औरत या मर्द दिखलाइये और मैं आपको एक संत दिखा दूंगा। दो होंगे तो प्यार करने लगेंगे। तीन होने पर वे समाज का निर्माण कर लेंगे। चार होने पर वे पिरामिड बना लेंगे। पाँच होंगे तो एक को अछूत बना देंगे। छः होने पर वे पूर्वाग्रह को फिर से खोज लेंगे। सात होने पर वे सात साल में युद्ध का फिर से पता लेंगे। - स्टीफेन किंग।

Friday, October 17, 2014

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Monday, October 6, 2014

Doubling Down on Democracy - Michael Ignatieff - The Atlantic

Doubling Down on Democracy - Michael Ignatieff - The Atlantic:



Are states with capitalist economy, authoritarian politics and nationalist ideology real threat to democracy?

Sunday, September 28, 2014

After Jayalalithaa?

After Jayalalithaa?: Mukul Kesavan



The founding of proprietorial political parties by charismatic leaders, succession in them and misogyny in the case of women leaders like Jayalalithaa, Mamata and Mayavati. The writers errs on some facts, yet it is a good article.

Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Middle Kingdom comes to Karmbhoomi "Towards an Asian century of prosperity -

Towards an Asian century of prosperity - The Hindu: "As the two engines of the Asian economy, we need to become cooperation partners spearheading growth. I believe that the combination of China’s energy plus India’s wisdom will release massive potential." Xi Jinping, Chinese President




Friday, September 12, 2014

झारखंड की राजनीति: बौनों के बीच बानवीर् नेता - बाबूलाल मरांडी

बाबूलाल मरांडी झारखंड के पहले मुख्यमंत्री हैं। भाजपा ने कम उम्र में ही बाबूलाल को संघीय राज्य मंत्री बनाया था और फिर झारखंड के गठन के बाद उन्हें राज्य का पहला मुख्यमंत्री बनाया। परंतु कृतज्नता राजनीतिज्नों का लक्षण नहीं है। सरकार गठबंधन की थी। जदयू के लालचंद महतो ( जो अब भाजपा में हैं ) और स्वर्गीय मधु सिंह जैसे नेताओं के षडयंत्र और तत्कालीन विधान सभा अध्यक्ष इंदर सिंह नामधारी ( जो अभी तारा शाहदेव - रकीबुल कांड में चर्चा में हैं) की महत्त्वाकांक्षा ने बाबूलाल को अपदस्थ कर दिया। इसमें राजनाथ सिंह की भी भूमिका थी। बाबूलाल के पृष्ठपोषक लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी भी बाबूलाल को नहीं बचा पाये। बाबूलाल ने आडवाणी के विरुद्ध विष-वमन में कोई कसर नहीं छोडी।
अगर झारखंड विधान सभा में भाजपा की सदस्य संख्या लगातार घटती जा रही है तो इसके लिए बाबूलाल कम  उत्तरदायी नहीं हैं। उन्हें पूरी तरह खाली और साफ-सुथरा स्लेट मिला था जिस पर वे सुंदर अक्षरों में झारखंड के विकास का खांका खींच सकते थे, परंतु उन्होंने यह मौका गँवा दिया। स्थानीयता के मुद्दे पर झारखंड को अशांत करने के अतिरिक्त उन्होंने जो झारखंड का सबसे बडा अहित किया वह था संस्थाओं के निर्माण में विफलता। कोई भी अच्छा नेता संस्थाओं को बनाने पर जोड देता, जिसे बिहार में विभिन्न सरकारों के द्वारा ध्वस्त कर दिया गया था। श्री मती इंदिरा गांधी ने भारतीय राज व्यवस्था की जो सबसे बडी क्षति की थी वह थी संस्थाऑं का अवमूल्यन। बाबूलाल ने भी झारखंड में वही काम किया। लोकतंत्र में नियुक्ति की निष्पक्षता के लिए लोक सेवा आयोगों का गठन होता है। बाबूलाल ने लोक सेवा आयोग में बौनों को भरकर यह सिद्ध कर दिया कि पानी नीचे की ओर ही जाता है। बिहार में यही काम डाक्टर जगन्नाथ मिश्र और लालू यादव ने किया था और बिहार को पूरी तरह बरबाद कर दिया था। जिस प्रकार के लोगों को बाबूलाल ने नियुक्त किया था उसमें कोई आश्चर्य नहीं कि लगभग पूरा का पूरा आयोग जेल चला गया। संस्थाओं का महत्त्व समझने के लिये जिस गुण की जरूरत होती है, वह बाबूलाल में है ही नहीं। झारखंड का यह दुर्भाग्य है कि यहाँके किसी भी नेता में यह गुण देखने को नहीं मिलता।
एक बार एक स्थानीय अखबार ने झारखंड राजनीति पर मुझसे एक लेख मांगा। लेख जब छपा तब बाबूलाल के संबंध में की गई टिप्पणियों को छोड दिया गया था। जब इस पर मैने आपत्ति की तो मुझसे कहा गया कि यह प्रबंधन की नीति है। इसके बाद मैंने उस अखबार के लिये लिखना छोड दिया। इस संदर्भ का उल्लेख मैंने केवल यह स्पष्ट करने के लिए किया है कि कैसे मीडिया नेताओं को उछालता है, बचाता है ।
वित्तीय मामले में बाबूलाल की तुलनात्मक रूप से साफ छवि है, परंतु सत्तालोलुपता के आरोप में यह छवि भी धुंधला गयी है। मैं उन लोगों में था जिन्हें झारखंड और बाबूलाल से बहुत उम्मीदें थीं, परंतु झारखंड के ही समान बाबूलाल ने भी अभी तक निराश ही किया है।

Friday, September 5, 2014

The Tragedy of Pakistan - A longing for war

A longing for war:



The tragedy of Pakistan : Pakistan was created in a hate-India environment among a section of the Muslims. However, it was the USA which was to be the greatest enemy of Pakistan in order to serve its own narrow interest. It propped up Pakistan to neutralise India and the then Soviet Union, it gave financial and military assistance to Pakistan to make it more aggressive, it winked at Pakistani misdemeanour , be it in nuclear field or abetting terrorism in India. The USA has made Pakistan its own worst enemy.

Thursday, August 7, 2014

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Sunday, June 22, 2014

Unesco list gives Nalanda a miss

Unesco list gives Nalanda a miss



This is a sad reflection on the working of international organizations like the UNESCO.

Thursday, June 12, 2014

Reworking the idea of Pakistan - Husain Haqqani

Reworking the idea of Pakistan 



We may describe this piece as a voice of reason from Pakistan. Did Jinnah really say or believe that India and Pakistan should be like the USA and Canada? Did Nehru really say if he were offered reunion of India and Pakistan, he would refuse?

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

The Good of Government by Roger Scruton | Articles | First Things

The Good of Government by Roger Scruton | Articles | First Things:



" Government is not a solution to the problem, it is the problem." - Ronald Reagan. Depends to a large extent the kind of government we have.

Monday, June 2, 2014

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Pant: U.S.-Indian Relations Under Modi - WSJ.com

Pant: U.S.-Indian Relations Under Modi - WSJ.com:



Perils of formulating a country's foreign policy to influence other country's politics.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

The real contest for India- PB Mehta

The real contest for India - PB Mehta



A federation of communities vs a zone of individual freedom

What Was Democracy? | The Nation

What Was Democracy? | The Nation:



It's unfortunate that the Western world doesn't know anything about Indian Sabhas and Samitis. Without knowing about them you can't claim to understand the evolution of the concept of democracy.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Friday, April 4, 2014

India’s election: Can anyone stop Narendra Modi? | The Economist

India’s election: Can anyone stop Narendra Modi? | The Economist:



The Economist has jumped into the soup unnecessarily. Indians don't vote on the basis of writings in foreign journals and newspapers. The Economist article is not only biased, but unnecessary as well.

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Oh, But You Do Get It Wrong! | Aditi Banerjee

Oh, But You Do Get It Wrong! | Aditi Banerjee: Wendy Doniger, who teaches at Chicago, has written a book Hindus: An Alternative History. Wendy, a Jew, does herself disservice by refusing to understand Hinduism, as it is. She presents herself as sex obsessed and sex possessed. She is Professor of History of Religions, but refuses to learn truth about religions. Aditi Banerjee's rejoinder is factual, scholarly and objective.



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Tuesday, February 4, 2014

The Ethics of Everyday Life: Justifying Lies

The Ethics of Everyday Life: Justifying Lies:



Augustine of Hippo wrote two books about lying: On Lying (De Mendacio) and Against Lying (Contra Mendacio).[22][23] He describes each book in his later work, Retractions. Based on the location of De Mendacio in Retractions, it appears to have been written about 395 AD. The first work, On Lying, begins: "Magna quæstio est de Mendacio" ("There is a great question about Lying"). From his text, it can be derived that St. Augustine divided lies into eight categories, listed in order of descending severity:
  • Lies in religious teaching
  • Lies that harm others and help no one
  • Lies that harm others and help someone
  • Lies told for the pleasure of lying
  • Lies told to "please others in smooth discourse"
  • Lies that harm no one and that help someone materially
  • Lies that harm no one and that help someone spiritually
  • Lies that harm no one and that protect someone from "bodily defilement"
Augustine wrote that lies told in jest, or by someone who believes or opines the lie to be true are not, in fact, lies.

Thursday, January 23, 2014

The psychology of political parties: Why conservatives fall in line and liberals don’t - Salon.com

The psychology of political parties: Why conservatives fall in line and liberals don’t



Is this because conservatives/ Rightists are clear headed, whereas Left-Liberals are a confused lot and confuse others. Conservatives cherish peace & tranquility, Left-Liberals cherish chaos/uncertainty.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Media is the message. Live debate is the story -

Media is the message. Live debate is the story - The Times of India:

Which media is the message now - Print/Paid/Social?

Balochistan’s Hinglaj Mata Temple | The Baloch Hal

Balochistan’s Hinglaj Mata Temple | The Baloch Hal:

Foreign invaders came, looted, plundered and divided India. The worst part of it was that took away the essence of our existence, like Hadappa, Mohanjodaro, Hinglaz, the Sindhu river.

Wednesday, January 1, 2014